quarta-feira, 30 de setembro de 2015

Ditch The Barbell Bench Press





Here's what you need to know.

Bencher's chest: The lack of chest development caused by too much low-rep barbell bench pressing.
Dumbbells are the best and most versatile training tools available and they have a unique effect on the body.
Dumbbells are safer, have fewer joint consequences compared to the barbell, and are superior for developing independent motor control with resistance.
Placing the feet up during dumbbell flat presses enhances muscle fiber recruitment.
The decline press is a useless exercise. Wide dips are better.
Birth of a Misguided Notion
I spent my formative years in a powerlifting gym. As such, powerlifting and strength work was seen as the answer to everything, training-wise.
But I wasn't really interested in how much I could bench press for one rep. Instead, I was fascinated with developing a great physique.
Sadly, the only advice I got back then was that I had to bench press a lot of weight to have great chest development. Paradoxically, very few of these powerlifters had any great level of chest development themselves.



Do You Suffer From Bencher's Chest?




I call it bencher's chest. It's a term that describes the look a lifter has when he's doing too much max-load bench pressing. It describes someone whose chest development looks better with his shirt on, rather than with his shirt off.
In other words, someone with "bencher's chest" has pecs that look more developed from the outside-in than from the inner-pecs outward. Their pecs lack that thickness-cleavage at the center of the chest. And this look always seems to be connected to a guy who did a lot of heavy bench pressing, especially in his earlier years.
The cure for bencher's chest is utilizing the standard barbell bench press as just another exercise in the program design, done for higher reps, along with utilizing far more incline work and chest flye motions. That would earn that coveted inside-out, thick-cleavage appearance of well-developed pecs.
Even more important though is for these guys to adopt dumbbell bench presses as their main movement.



The Dumbbell Bench Press: Superior for Pecs




Of all the training tools used for resistance training, dumbbells are the best and most versatile, and they have a unique effect in terms of the body's response to them.
I pretty much haven't used a barbell in decades. Dumbbells are safer, have fewer joint consequences compared to the barbell, and are just superior training tools for developing independent motor control with resistance.



Scott Abel, in his 40's, at 260 pounds at 5' 9". Note the chest development, accomplished without barbell work.
This latter influence can have an enhanced effect on fiber recruitment – even when the dumbbells are used bilaterally in the exact same way a barbell would be used, as in the dumbbell flat bench press vs. the barbell bench press.
Feet Up for Bodybuilder Pecs
Another way to enhance fiber recruitment is to place the feet up off the ground while doing dumbbell flat presses. This tweak produces joint stress transfer and presumably affects innervation in a positive way.
Furthermore, the dumbbell flat press can eliminate all the technique details of the regular barbell bench press that are used solely to lift as much weight as possible (legs driving into the ground, excessive chest arch, etc.).
After all, the less you have to think about regarding technique and execution of an exercise, the more available mental energy you have to concentrate on the targeted muscle under load.
Additionally, because dumbbells don't connect the hands together like a barbell does, they stimulate and require more active, conscious, concentrated control. The movement is hard to do, but in a different way than the standard barbell bench press.


Train the Muscle, Not the Movement



More importantly for young and intermediate level lifters seeking physique development, the dumbbell flat bench press has the added benefit of keeping the movement honest. You can't bounce or rebound dumbbells off your chest like you can when performing the standard barbell bench press.
In the barbell bench press, for instance, the net effect of the deliberate use of the lower body (driving the legs into the ground) is completely about increasing the amount of load that can be lifted. But by using dumbbells and putting your feet up on the end of the bench, it more effectively isolates and overloads the pecs.
Of course, both of these things lower the amount of weight you can lift, but that should be irrelevant. This is about size gains, not hitting one-rep PRs.
These external factors like "how much you lift" often become secondary if your goal is truly about muscular physique development. And it's important to know the difference because some people never understand this.
Remember, for physique development, you train the muscle, not the movement. Powerlifters and strength athletes looking for max numbers in the bench press have the opposite mindset. They're focused on training the movement, not the muscles.


What About the Decline Press?



Since we're talking about what works and what doesn't work for chest development, I agree with Mark Rippetoe whole-heartedly when he says that the decline press is a useless exercise.
The decline is often recommended in personal training lore as a movement to target the lower pecs, but wide dips would target the lower pecs much more effectively and in a more natural kinetic expression for the muscles in action.



Wide dips would also recruit far more muscle mass and demand more real-world balance and coordination, as well as more nervous system activity as well.
All these considerations make wide-dips a far more intelligent choice than the decline press for pec development or as an ancillary movement choice.



The Cure for Bencher's Chest




To summarize:
If you do use the barbell bench press and want to build your chest, keep the reps in the higher hypertrophy range.
Focus most of your chest work on the dumbbell bench press and keep your feet up.
Don't forget dumbbell flyes and do some incline work.
Ditch the decline bench press and focus instead on wide dips.
Remember, for physique development, train the muscle, not the movement.



terça-feira, 29 de setembro de 2015

The Other Reason You Don't Have a Six-Pack





Credit: Daniel Grill / Getty Images

Throw out the weight loss diets and special machines: You have everything you need to transform your abs with just your body. The big trick to getting glossy abs is pretty simple: you need release the restrictions in your abs that keep them from working properly, then activate those muscles, and finally you can strengthen the specific muscles you need.

In order to develop those strong abdominals you need to start with the innermost layer, your transverse abdominis (TA). In theory, this muscle should be working all the time. It should stabilize you before you move and is used when you breathe properly. However, when there are restrictions in your hip flexors and tightness in your abdominals insertions, it is unable to work properly.

Everyone focuses on the rectus abdominis during exercise, the muscle that, when workingproperly, creates the six pack look. But the other abdominal muscles are the ones that will create true core stability and strength. Consider the key role the TA plays in tennis. Hear those grunts and guttural sounds when the player striking the ball? These serve a key purpose — helping the athlete stabilize their core through forced exhalation to create increased force production and therefore maximizing the velocity of the ball.
Diaphragmatic breathing is the key to getting your TA to work. Start by lying on your back with your knees bent. Place one hand on your chest and one hand on your lower belly. Breathe in through your nose and force your air into your lowest lungs. If you feel your top hand rising, continue to try to guide the breath down to your lower hand. If you can't then you are probably restricted at the abdominal insertions along your core. You will need to release these areas (see the exercises below).

Getting your TA to work properly is going to set you up for success with all other ab exercises. I’ve often heard people mention that their backs hurt after an ab work out. That should absolutely not happen and indicates that the TA is not helping you stabilize. Getting your TA to work will give you the proper foundation and allow you to build up to targeting your other ab muscles. When it comes to your abs, start with the inner most layers and progress to the internal obliques, external obliques, and then the rectus abdominis. That's the only way you can get that six-pack you always wanted.

(Caveat: If you are eating pizza with cheese-filled crust everyday, doing the things I offer up below will not give you a six pack. You need to eat well — nutrient-dense, unprocessed foods, you know the drill — to address excess weight.)

Deep Breathing
Lie on your back with your knees bent and feet flat. Keep the back flat and in contact with the surface.
Take a deep breath in through your nose ensuring that your lower belly rises and your chest doesn’t move.
Focus on sending your breath down to your lower belly, keeping the back flat.
Breath with your lips puckered.
Imagine you are blowing out candles. As a general rule, 5 seconds for inhaling, 7 seconds for exhaling.
Prone Plank
Lie on your stomach with your elbow parallel below your shoulder.
Engage your abdominals and lift your hipsto enter a plank position.
Tuck your pelvis under and hollow your belly slightly.
Squeeze your shoulders down and back, tuck your chin, and squeeze your glutes.
Ideally, you will have a straight line from the back of your head to your sacrum.
Now focus on the action of blowing out candles or saying “SHHHHHH”. You should feel your deepest abdominals engage.
Side Planks
Lay on side, place elbow under shoulder, engage abs,and squeeze glutes together.
Push up supporting weight onto forearm and side of the foot, knees together, and heels stacked, make sure back is flat.
Shrug shoulders down, tuck your chin,and blow like you are blowing out candles to activate your transverse abdominis.

Twisted Dead Bug
Lie on your back with your hands straight in front of you toward the ceiling.Bring your knees and hips up to 90 degrees and make sure your lower back is flat on the ground. Position and squeeze a half foam roller between the right elbow and left knee.In this position, lower and straighten the opposite leg until it is just above the ground. At the same time lower your opposite arm towards the ground above your head. Throughout this movement, maintain tension in your abdominals and keep your low back flat on the ground. Return to the starting position and repeat on the opposite side. Perform three sets of 10-15 on each side

By David Reavy, founder of Chicago-based React Physical Therapy, is the creator of the Reavy Method, a whole body approach to physical therapy and exercise. Reavy works with numerous pro athletes from the NFL, NBA, MLS, and the WNBA.

quarta-feira, 16 de setembro de 2015

5 Surprising Ways to Make Your Biceps Grow


Help your guns reach their full potential with these expert-approved sleeve busters

BY JILL FANSLAU




Guns, pythons, pipes, weapons of mass destruction. There are plenty of nicknames for your biceps—and plenty of ways to work them, too. So if your only strategy is do 3 sets of 10 of the classic curl, you’re missing out. The following 5 expert-approved techniques will help your biceps reach their peak potential.

Cheat Your Form

Strict form may be holding you back.

A study in the Eupropean Journal of Applied Physiology found that you don’t always have to do an exercise the way it’s intended to maximize your results.

Using a bit of momentum during the lateral raise, for example, increases the torque of your shoulder joint, helping you raise a heavier weight to the point at which your deltoids take over, according to the researchers.

“You can achieve a similar effect with biceps curls,” says sports biomechanist Bret Contreras, C.S.C.S.

The key is to keep the body English to a minimum. Not enough or too much inertia is inefficient, he says. You’ll want to use just enough momentum to help you propel the bigger weights up to your chest. The inertia should come from your hips, not your lower back. Choose a load that’s about 10 percent heavier than you would normally lift.

Curl on an Incline

The front of your upper arm owes its bulge to your biceps brachii, which is composed of two separate sections: the long head and the short head.


In order to maximally activate your biceps—or create the biggest muscle contractions possible—you must stretch the heads at the shoulder joint and flex them at the elbow joint, says Brad Schoenfeld, Ph.D., C.S.C.S. And the more you stretch them, the greater their capacity to flex or shorten.

By positioning your body on an incline while performing a dumbbell curl, your elbows hang behind your torso. This position stretches the heads across your shoulder joints, allowing the muscles to generate more force as you curl, he says.

Set an adjustable bench to a 45-degree incline and lie faceup. Grab a pair of dumbbells, and let them hang at arms length directly below your shoulders. Keeping your upper arms in the same position, curl the weights up.

Switch Up Your Grip

Underneath your biceps brachii is a muscle called the brachialis. Even though it’s located deep in the upper arm, it can still play an indirect role in the appearance of your biceps, says Schoenfeld.

“As your brachialis grows bigger, it expands and pushes out on your biceps brachii,” he says. So the larger your brachialis, the larger your biceps look.

The best way to hit your brachialis: reverse curls. Pronating your arms—or using an overhand grip—during a curl shortens the biceps brachii so they’re unable to carry out as much force.

When this happens, your brachialis has to take over and perform the majority of the work, explains Schoenfeld. Perform at least 5 reps to start.

Hit Pause

Ever notice how big gymnasts’ biceps are? They can thank the hours they spend holding difficult positions on the Olympic rings for their pumped up guns.

“The biceps respond well to high-tension, isometric contractions,” says physiologist Chad Waterbury, M.S.

When you pause or hold a weight so the length of your biceps don’t change, you target your type IIb muscle fibers, which are the ones with the most growth potential, he explains. Actively squeezing the muscle during an isometric contraction will also increase your gains.

Try this technique with an inverted row using what Waterbury calls a “5-to-3 iso-squeeze.” Using an underhand, wide grip, grab a bar that’s been secured about waist height. Hang with your arms completely straight and heels touching the floor. Your body should form a straight line from your ankles to your head. Pull your shoulder blades back, and continue to pull with your arms to lift your chest to the bar. Hold this position for 5 seconds while squeezing your biceps tightly.

“You should squeeze the muscles like you’re trying to make them cramp,” says Waterbury. Then lower your body back to the starting position. Now perform 5 full normal reps of the inverted row with no hold at the top. Let go of the bar and rest for 10 seconds. Next, pull your chest to the bar, and hold the top position for 4 seconds. Immediately perform 4 full normal reps with no pause. Rest for another 10 seconds. Then pull your chest to the bar and hold for 3 seconds. Immediately do 3 full reps. That’s 1 round. Do 3 rounds total, resting 90 seconds between each one.

Hang Out

During a chinup, your lats are the primary workers. However, you can shift the workload to your biceps by tweaking the movement, says Waterbury.

When your elbows are bent at 90 degrees, your lats have limited strength potential. As a result, your biceps have to work extra hard to pull up your body. Holding at this mid-way point for at least 5 seconds stimulates your type IIb fibers and triggers growth, explains Waterbury.

Stand on a bench in front of a chinup bar. Grab the bar with an underhand grip. Your elbows should be bent to 90 degrees. Maintaining the bend in your elbows, lift your feet off the bench. Hang for 5 seconds, and then place your feet back down. That’s 1 set. Perform 5 sets, resting 90 seconds between each one. Add 1 second to your hang each week until you can hang for 10 seconds every set.

To maximally activate your type IIb fibers, work your way up to using only one arm. “The one-arm hang makes the biceps do twice the work of a normal chinup since only one arm is holding the body in space,” he says.

Set up the same way as the two-arm hang, but grab the bar with your right hand to start. Firmly grab your right wrist with your left hand. Keeping the angle in your right arm, lift your feet off the bench. Hang for 5 seconds, and then place your feet back down. Perform the same hang from your left arm. That’s 1 set. Do 5
.

terça-feira, 15 de setembro de 2015

Whey vs. Casein: The Real Story

For More Muscle and More Strength, Choose Wisely

Whey-vs-casein-the-real-story

Here's what you need to know...

  1. Casein is generally a better muscle builder, a better strength builder, and a better fat burner than whey.
  2. The best thing about whey protein is that it contains a variety of proteins that bolster the immune system.
  3. Whey, in general, is simply a leftover product of making cheese, whereas casein isn't a leftover or byproduct; it comes directly from milk.
  4. Sophisticated caseins like micellar casein and casein hydrolysate, while costlier than whey or generic casein, are worth the extra money.
  5. For an all-around protein powder, a blend of whey and casein is best. For workout nutrition, casein hydrolysate reigns supreme.

Why You're Drinking Whey

If you drink only whey protein instead of casein or a blend of whey and casein, you're probably doing it because:
  1. You've got some sort of immunodeficiency.
  2. You're on a budget and simply can't afford casein.
  3. You're under the impression that whey is better than casein for building muscle.
Let's take a look at each of these assumptions.

Whey and Immunodeficiency

Whey Protein
There are three primary forms of whey proteins, and their immunomodulatory effects vary enormously.

1.  Whey Concentrate

Hands down, the best thing about whey protein is that it contains a variety of proteins that put a big hurt on viruses and bacteria.
These proteins are called immunoglobulins and you may already have a healthy supply coursing through your veins. If, however, your immune system is compromised because of disease or poor nutrition, supplemental immunoglobulins might do you some good.
The trouble is, these valuable immunoglobulins pretty much exist only in whey concentrate, which is the cheapest and least processed form of whey.
Whey concentrate has higher levels of fat, cholesterol, and lactose and it contains the lowest percentage of protein of any of the types of whey, but it's definitely rich in immunoglobulins IgGI, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3.

2.  Whey Isolate

Tub
While having more protein and lower levels of fat and cholesterol than concentrates, whey isolate also has lower levels of immunoglobulins, too. Isolates are more expensive than concentrates because they're more processed and they're, well, more isolated, i.e., more concentrated.

3.  Whey Hydrolysate

This is the most expensive type of whey and it consists of proteins that are predigested and partially hydrolyzed so they can be more easily metabolized.

Related:  Six Things You Need to Know About Protein


Hydrolysate shave virtually no fat or cholesterol, but likewise they're devoid of all those juicy immunoglobulins. These hydrolysates are highly prized by baby food manufacturers because this lack of bioactive compounds makes them less allergenic than other forms of protein.

What About Casein and the Immune System?

While casein products usually contain certain immunoglobulins or have immunomodulatory properties, too, whey (concentrate, at least) is generally more powerful in this regard. So, if you're immunocompromised, it's not a bad idea to choose whey concentrate.

Cost: Whey vs. Casein

Supplement Store
Whey protein is generally cheaper than casein, but let's look briefly at protein prices in general.
You, dear reader, and your brethren are largely responsible for the cost of protein supplements today. As such, you also bear some of the responsibility of the quality, or lack thereof, of today's protein supplements.
For some reason, the whole lot of you somehow decided that a container of protein should sell for between 20 and 30 dollars. You did that by ignoring more sophisticated, pricier proteins that sold for more than that, but you reap what you sow.

The Story Behind Protein Pricing

Most sports supplement manufacturers in general have a fitful time getting protein to sell for 20 to 30 dollars (or less), but when you add other industries like baby food manufacturers and dairy manufacturers into the equation, pricing becomes even more complicated and difficult.
Both of those industries are far bigger than the supplement business, so they call the shots. If there's a shortage of milk proteins, the supplement business is at the end of the protein gruel line and its Oliver Twist-like pleas of, "Please sir, I want some more milk protein," go unheeded.
So prices, like those of other commodities, usually trek ever upwards.
Consider, too, that when you see a protein product in a retail store, the price for that item is 3, 4, 5, or even 6 times what it cost to manufacturer that tub because there's got to be enough profit to fill the outstretched palms of all the middle men that got the product to the store shelf.
So that 20-dollar tub of protein may have cost the manufacturer about five bucks, and five bucks does not a lot of quality protein buy, so manufacturers often have to get "creative."
Note: Things are much easier for supplement companies that sell direct: No middlemen to pay. Expensive proteins can be used while still making a profit.
Consider that it'd be virtually impossible to buy a high-quality casein – or even a high-quality whey hydrolysate – off a store shelf because the mark-up would bring it up into the 100 dollar-plus price range.

Protein Shenanigans and Leftovers

Protein Powder Pile
The necessity of building an inexpensive protein powder drives some to allegedly use inferior and dubious proteins from China.
Likewise, others might take a bargain basement protein, throw adusting of more expensive whey hydrolysate into it, and call it a whey hydrolysate product instead of a cheap whey concentrate.
They're like jewelers who put a couple of micrograms of gold in a bracelet and charge you a year's pay because it's "gold." You think you're getting a bargain, but you're really getting shafted.
And when it comes to protein, you could just be getting the really bad stuff, the metaphorical and possibly literal bottom of the barrel.
Consider what Dr. Mercola, the alternative medicine guy, says about cheap whey isolates:
"Many cheap whey protein isolates are produced from acid cheese. They're byproducts of acid processing, which is a cheap way to separate whey from the curd. Most of these whey products are rated below pet foods because of the inferior quality of the protein, which is actually more of a nitrogen waste product than one that will produce health benefits..."
It's a sad state of protein affairs. Protein science has been largely handcuffed because of this fixation on price. It's probably the one area of sports nutrition where technology is racing backwards. High-tech proteins cost money and some people are reluctant to spend it, despite their benefits.

So Which is Cheaper, Casein or Whey?

Shake
Regardless of these price permutations and shenanigans, whey protein is almost always cheaper than casein. Whey, in general, is simply a leftover product of making cheese, and some factories can process it into concentrate or isolate right there as the leftover whey flows down the slosh trays and PVC pipes.
Casein, however, is not a leftover or byproduct. It comes from actual milk. And when you start developing really sophisticated caseins like micellar caseins and casein hydrolysate, the price jumps considerably, but it's also worth the extra cost as we'll see in the next section.

Which is the Better Muscle Builder?

Scoop
Casein is a better muscle builder, a better strength builder, and even a better fat burner.
That's not to say that whey proteins are a dog when it comes to sports nutrition. Quite the contrary, its quick absorption and high leucine content, particularly when it comes to whey hydrolysates, makes it a worthwhile protein, but athletes should opt for casein instead, especially when there are a couple of high-tech variations available.
Let's do some comparisons and look at different types of casein.

Generic Casein vs. Generic Whey

Casein results in greater deposition of protein than whey, which simply means more muscle. Whey causes protein synthesis to increase rapidly and to a high degree, but it doesn't last long. There's an increase in protein synthesis and protein oxidation, but there's no change in protein breakdown.
That last point is a huge negative for whey. Contrast that with casein, which, like whey, increases protein synthesis but inhibits breakdown to a large degree.
A good number of studies have confirmed that casein leads to superior gains of lean mass and strength.
One study using weight-trained subjects showed a doubling of lean mass gains and 50% greater fat loss over that of the whey group. The casein group also increased bench, shoulder press, and leg extension strength by a collective 59% whereas the whey group only had a 28% increase in strength.

Related:  Protein: More Muscle, Less Guesswork


Another study, this one with burn patients, showed that 70-75 grams of casein outperformed the same amount of whey. The casein group gained lean muscle twice as fast as the whey group, despite having to deal with the incredibly high metabolism and increased protein oxidation from injuries.
And those two are just a very small sampling of studies that have shown the superiority of generic casein. There are, however, sophisticated caseins whose muscle-building properties go much further than the generic, garden-variety caseins.

Micellar Casein

White Powder
A micelle is a natural globular structure that appears in milk, and it's composed of all five casein milk proteins (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and kappa). If acids or alkali processing remove one or more of these proteins, the casein micelle is destroyed.
The proteins would then have a lower level of bioactivity and the human body would then have much more difficulty digesting it and assimilating it.
Intact micelles, however, form clumps and hence are very slow to digest. That equates to a gradual release of amino acids and significantly higher concentrations of leucine in the bloodstream. Furthermore, micellar casein is profoundly anticatabolic.
As you might guess, micellar casein is hard to make, requiring a "delicate touch," chemically speaking. In fact, making and preserving micellar casein is like trying to catch a snowflake in Maine and then shipping it intact using UPS.
As such, it costs more than most other proteins, especially whey.

Casein Hydrolysate

Female and Protein
Hydrolysates take an entirely different approach than micellar proteins. Unlike micellar caseins, they're heavily processed, but in this case it's a good thing.
The goal is to get a complex mixture of two and three amino acid (di- and tri-peptide) chains that have unique biochemical properties and that are absorbed intact, not requiring any further digestion.
Furthermore, casein hydrolysates are at least 30% more effective in stimulating muscle protein synthesis than intact casein.
Additionally, these rapidly-absorbed casein hydrolysates are ideal for peri- or intra-workout consumption, as studies have shown that ingesting them every 15 minutes during exercise led to substantially higher muscle protein synthesis.
However, protein hydrolysates made by different methods might have entirely different protein kinetics. In short, the notion that an amino acid is an amino acid no matter how it's administered is flat-out wrong. A proper muscle-building casein hydrolysate has to be made with muscle-building or strength in mind.
Casein hydrolysates also have another unique mode of action in that they're more insulinogenic than likewise rapidly absorbed whey proteins. Insulinogenic means they elicit a rise in insulin, which is exactly what you want in a protein during the peri-workout period because insulin shuttles amino acids to working muscles.

Related:  What You Don't Know About Workout Supplementation


Wheys are comparatively light in the insulinogneic amino acids arginine, phenylalanine, and glutamine, whereas casein hydrolysates are high in arginine, glutamine, threonine, and total number of insulinogenic amino acids.
While it's true that casein hydrolysates are among the most expensive proteins in the world, they're also quite economical in one sense: A 10 to 20 gram dose of a good casein hydrolysate stimulates muscle protein synthesis to a much greater degree than a much, much larger dose of conventional proteins.

Recommendations

Bodybuilder
  1. For a good all-around protein powder:  Use a blend of micellar casein and whey protein isolate to take advantage of their combined qualities. 
  2. For workout nutrition:  Use a high-quality casein hydrolysate combined with rapidly absorbed carbohydrates to further enhance the insulinogenic effect. 
  3. For workout nutrition on a budget:  Use a high-quality whey hydrolysate.
  4. For protein pulsing during the day:  Use casein hydrolysate.
  5. Buy direct (instead of paying for all those middlemen) so that you know that its cost was largely determined on the quality of the protein, rather than a set, pre-determined profit margin.

References

  1. Boire, Y., et al, "Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion," Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997, Dec 23;94(26):1493-5
  2. Demling, RH, DeSanti, L, "Effect of a hypocaloric diet, increased protein intake and resistance training on lean mass gains and fat mass loss in overweight police officers," Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;44(1): 21-9.
  3. Demling, RH, Desanti, L, "Increased protein intake during the recovery phase after severe burns increases body weight and muscle function," J. Burn Care Rehab, 1998;19:161-168.
  4. Koopman, Rene, et al, "Ingestion of protein hydrolysate is accompanied by an accelerated in vivo digestion and absorption rate when compared to its intact protein." 2009, Am J Clin Nutr, 90: 106-115.
  5. Manninen, Ansii, Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition, Nutrition and Metabolism, 2009, 6:38 doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-6-38.